NCAER Land Records and Services Index (N-LRSI) 2021

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The Land Records and Services Index, published annually by the National Council of Applied Economic Research, assesses the extent of digitization of land records and the quality of these records in all states and union territories of India. The N-LRSI is the very first piece of research that carries out an in-depth analysis of the quality of land records and the progress of states in digitization of land records in India. By ranking all states and UTs on these parameters, the index assesses the current status of digitization across India, identifies the existing gaps in each state, and can help the under-performing states to implement specific remedial actions to improve the situation. The objective of the index is to instill a sense of competition and create an incentive for the States/UTs to do better, and ultimately, raise awareness on the importance of having publicly accessible land records.

As per the 2020 rankings, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Tamil Nadu were the best performing states. In 2021, almost all States/Union Territories have shown an improvement in their efforts to digitize land records compared to the previous year. Madhya Pradesh has emerged as the top performer for the second year in a row, followed by West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

NLRSI Scores 2020 & 2021


The documents here include the main N-LRSI report, an overview document, and a document outlining key findings of the report which was presented at the virtual launch event in March 2021.


Key findings from the N-LRSI 2021 were outlined by the NCAER research team during the virtual launch event in March 2021. Various state governments were also present to share their experiences and best practices. You can read a comprehensive overview of the event here. You can also view a recording of the event here.